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Industrial Electronics

9 January, 2021

Solar power: Potential and mystery

Great potential

Currently, PV is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In the past 2 decades, the average growth rate of this market is 25% / year. This energy market shows 3 clear trends, with the types of “PV buildings / PV roofs” (BIPV); solar cell manufacturing (PMT), notably thin film technology PMT (PV), accounts for the majority of the total installed capacity (leading the world is the US, Malaysia, Germany … ); and the establishment of a series of solar PV plants.

Vietnam is considered one of the countries with considerable solar energy potential. Survey data on the amount of solar radiation shows that localities in the North average 1,800-2,100 hours of sunshine / year, while provinces in the South (from Da Nang and above) average 2,000-2,600 hours of sunshine. /year.

Generally, the amount of solar radiation in the northern provinces decreases by 20% compared to the central and southern provinces, and the amount of solar radiation is not evenly distributed all year round due to drizzly rain in winter and spring. It lasted for dozens of days, so the source of solar radiation was negligible, only about 1-2kWh / m2 / day, greatly hindering the application of PV. Meanwhile, the southern provinces and Ho Chi Minh City have the sun shining all year round, stable even in the rainy season. Therefore, solar radiation is a great resource for the central and southern provinces.

Compared with hydroelectricity and thermal power, PV is a nascent industry in Vietnam, but has made significant progress in the past few years. Only in Ho Chi Minh City, PV industry has created a number of typical manufacturing facilities, such as the first industrial-scale PMT module factory in Vietnam, industrial infrastructure for manufacturing and manufacturing equipment. peripheral electronics for PV; Solar and Nam Thai Ha Joint Stock Company cooperated to build a factory “Solar Materials Incorporated”, capable of supplying both types of block silicon used for the PMT manufacturing industry.

According to scientists, PMT industry in Ho Chi Minh City has been nearly completed, there are only two stages missing in the closed process, namely refining silicon ore from sand and manufacturing PMT plates from silicon slabs. If completing these two stages, Vietnam will become one of the few countries in Asia with a closed PMT manufacturing industry.

According to the solar power potential map provided by the World Bank (WB) to policy makers and investors, Vietnam’s PV resources are quite abundant, with heat radiation sources of about 2,056kW / m2. / year and extends from the central provinces to the Mekong Delta region. This shows that the development potential of the PV field is huge.

Many projects were born

In fact, after the selling price of PV was adjusted by the Government to 9.35 cents / kWh in April 2017, at that time, on average, there were 9 projects producing and distributing wind power and solar PV each month. registration. By the end of 2018, the country had 121 solar power projects added to the national electricity development plan, with a total generating capacity expected before 2020 of 6,100 MW.

According to the latest data, up to now, hundreds of solar power projects have been registered to invest in Vietnam with a total capacity of up to 17,000 MW. Among these are many projects of foreign investors, such as the power plant project with capacity of more than 2,000MW of Thien Tan Group invested in Ninh Thuan and Quang Ngai provinces, or the 30MW factory project in Binh Thuan of DooSung Vina Company Limited (Korea).

Meanwhile, potential corporations in Vietnam are not inferior to ambitious projects, such as the project of 20 solar power plants with a total investment of about 1 billion USD of Thanh Thanh Cong Group. Or Xuan Cau Group invests about 2,000 MW in Tay Ninh, TH True-Milk Group and Xuan Thien Company invest in solar power projects in Dak Lak province with an installed capacity of about 3,000 MW. This shows that, PV is attracting the attention of domestic and foreign investors, because this is identified as the main source of energy for renewable energy development.

Unanswered questions

But even though the potential is assessed as significant, PV is still disturbing experts as well as public opinion. That is, in order to enjoy the selling price of solar PV at 9.35 cents / kWh for a period of 20 years according to the Government’s regulations, the PV projects must be put into commercial operation before June 30, 2016, Ninh Thuan province alone. is extended until the end of 2020.

However, according to the Prime Minister’s Decision 11/2017 / QD-TTg dated April 11, 2017, this price is only applicable to grid-connected projects with the efficiency of photovoltaic cells greater than 16%, or the module is greater than 15%. Circular 16/2018 / TT-BCT also requires a grid-connected PV project with a long-term land use area not exceeding 1.2ha / MWp.

According to experts, regulations on the efficiency of photovoltaic cells and the land area used for solar power projects are not subject to monitoring. Although the land area can be easily monitored when the enterprise is granted the land use right by the locality with the actual installed capacity of the project, who is the supervisory or post-inspection unit, the circular of the Ministry of Industry and Trade? specify. The performance requirement of photovoltaic cells is equally difficult in terms of testing.

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